Orientaciones para la comunidad científica sobre el diseño, implementación y evaluación de intervenciones escolares sobre promoción de comportamientos saludables (Guidelines for the scientific community on the design, implementation, and evaluation of school-based interventions for promoting healthy behaviours)

Autores/as

  • Javier Sevil-Serrano
  • Ángel Abós
  • Alberto Aibar Solana
  • Laura Simón-Montañés
  • Luis García-González

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.12800/ccd.v15i46.1601

Palabras clave:

hábitos saludables, programas de intervención escolares, Educación Física, implementación, jóvenes, sostenibilidad (health-related behaviors, school-based interventions, Physical Education, implementation, young people, sustainability)

Resumen

A pesar de los beneficios asociados a la adopción de un estilo de vida saludable, un gran porcentaje de jóvenes no cumple las recomendaciones establecidas para los diferentes comportamientos saludables. Por ello, resulta conveniente el desarrollo de intervenciones basadas en la promoción de comportamientos saludables. Si bien el contexto educativo resulta un entorno ideal para ello, la mayoría de las intervenciones han reportado efectos muy bajos o no significativos, desapareciendo en las medidas de seguimiento posteriores. Los programas escolares multinivel, multicomponente y multicomportamiento se han identificado como los enfoques más prometedores para la mejora de los comportamientos saludables. Sin embargo, debido a la gran complejidad en su aplicación, todavía existen numerosas dificultades y retos en su implementación y sostenibilidad. El objetivo del presente trabajo es aportar ocho orientaciones metodológicas y/o reflexiones para la comunidad científica para mejorar el diseño, implementación y evaluación de intervenciones escolares sobre promoción de comportamientos saludables. Todas ellas vienen avaladas por la literatura científica y por las lecciones aprendidas en la implementación de programas previos. Se espera que este trabajo pueda facilitar a la comunidad científica indicaciones claras y precisas de cómo deben abordarse este tipo de intervenciones, con objeto de favorecer que los programas escolares de promoción de comportamientos saludables sean realmente efectivos.===Despite the benefits of adopting a healthy lifestyle, a large percentage of young people do not meet the established recommendations for these health-related behaviors. Developing multiple health behavior interventions are, therefore, required. Although school has been considered an ideal setting to promote healthy lifestyles in children and adolescents, most school-based interventions reported small or non-significant effects, diminishing over time. Multilevel, multicomponent, and multiple behavior school programs have been identified as the most promising approaches for improving health-related behaviors. However, due to the great complexity in its application, there are numerous difficulties and challenges in its implementation and sustainability. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to provide eight methodological guidelines and/or reflections for the scientific community to improve the design, implementation, and evaluation of school-based interventions for promoting health-related behaviors. All of them are supported by the research literature and also by the experience developing school-based intervention programs. We hope that this manuscript provide to the scientific community clear and precise indications of how this type of intervention should be addressed in order to maximize the effectiveness of school health interventions.

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Publicado

2020-11-30

Cómo citar

Sevil-Serrano, J., Abós, Ángel, Aibar Solana, A., Simón-Montañés, L., & García-González, L. (2020). Orientaciones para la comunidad científica sobre el diseño, implementación y evaluación de intervenciones escolares sobre promoción de comportamientos saludables (Guidelines for the scientific community on the design, implementation, and evaluation of school-based interventions for promoting healthy behaviours). Cultura, Ciencia Y Deporte, 15(46), 507-517. https://doi.org/10.12800/ccd.v15i46.1601