Diseño y validación de una escala para medir en profesores de Educación Física el uso responsable de las pruebas de condición física (FITPET) (Design and validation of a scale to assess the responsible use of fitness testing in physical education teachers (FITPET))

Autores/as

  • David Blanco-Luengo
  • Alberto Nuviala
  • Rocío Izquierdo-Gómez
  • Alberto Grao-Cruces

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.12800/ccd.v15i46.1646

Palabras clave:

condición física, enseñanza, evaluación formativa, adolescentes, capacidad cardiorrespiratoria (physical fitness, teaching, formative evaluation, teenagers, cardiorespiratory capacity)

Resumen

El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo diseñar y validar una escala para evaluar en profesores de Educación Física el uso responsable de las pruebas de condición física relacionadas con la salud. Método: participaron un total de 374 docentes de secundaria (266 hombres y 108 mujeres) de centros educativos pertenecientes a las ocho provincias andaluzas, con edades comprendidas entre 24 y 67 años (41.92 ± 9.24 años). Resultados: en primer lugar, se diseñó un instrumento de 26 ítems, que obtuvo valores de correlación ítem-total ≥ .35, exceptuando 5 ítems. Posteriormente, se evaluó la estructura interna de la escala, resultando esta pertinente. El análisis estadístico de los ítems y el posterior análisis factorial exploratorio dio como resultado cinco factores (orientación del resultado, uso de estilos participativos, el enfoque educativo, rigor metodológico y refuerzo positivo), con correlaciones positivas y significativas, constatadas mediante análisis factorial confirmatorio, pruebas de invarianza factorial, así como de fiabilidad y validez convergente y discriminante. Los resultados del análisis de propiedades psicométricas de la escala fueron adecuados y permitieron ofrecer un instrumento ad hoc de 15 ítems, con moderados valores de validez y fiabilidad, acreditando su utilidad para valorar en profesores de Educación Física el uso responsable de las pruebas de condición física en sus clases.===The aim of this study was to design and validate a scale that would allow the evaluation in Physical Education teachers the responsible use of physical fitness tests related to health. Method: The sample was composed of 374 secondary school teachers (266 men and 108 women), from educational centers belonging to the eight Andalusian provinces, aged between 24 and 67 years (41.92 ± 9.24). Results: Firstly, a 26-item instrument was designed, which obtained item-total correlation values of ≥ .35, except for 5 items. Then, the internal structure of the scale was evaluated and proved to be relevant. The statistical analysis of the items and the subsequent exploratory factor analysis resulted in five factors (orientation of the result, use of participatory styles, the educational approach, methodological rigor, and positive reinforcement), with positive and significant correlations, confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis, factor invariance tests, as well as reliability and convergent and discriminant validity and reliability. The results of the analysis of psychometric properties of the scale were moderate and allowed us to offer a valid and reliable 15-item an ad hoc instrument, with adequate values of validity and reliability, proving its usefulness the evaluation in Physical Education teachers the responsible use of physical fitness tests in their classes.

Citas

Abalo, J., Lévy, J. P., Rial, A., & Varela, J. (2006). Invarianza factorial con muestras múltiples. En J. P. Lévy y J. Varela (Eds.), Modelización con Estructuras de Covarianzas en Ciencias Sociales (pp. 259-278). Madrid: Netbiblo.

Alarcón, T., & Reyno, A. (2009). Estilos de enseñanza en educación física:

Estudio transversal. Habilidad Motriz, 33, 15-24.

Bagozzi, R., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the Evaluation of Structural Equation Models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16 (1), 74-94. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02723327

Barbero, M. (2003). Psicometría II. Métodos de elaboración de escalas. Madrid: UNED.

Bollen, K A., & Long, J. S. (1993). Testing Structural Equation Models. Sage: Newbury Park, CA.

Bouchard, C., Blair, S.N., & Haskell, W. (eds). (2012). Physical Activity and Health. 2nd. US: Human Kinetcs.

Byrne, B.M. (2001). Structural Equation Modeling with AMOS. Basic Concepts, Applications, and Programmin. Londres: LEA.

Cale, L., & Harris, J. (2002). National testing for children: Issues, concerns, and alternatives. British Journal of Teaching Physical Education, 33(1), 32-34.

Cale, L., Harris, J., & Chen. M. H. (2007). More than 10 years after “The Horse is Dead”: Surely it must be time to dismount?! Pediatric Exercise Science,19, 115–131. https://doi.org/10.1123/pes.19.2.115

Carretero-Dios, H., & Pérez, C, (2007). Standards for the development and the review of instrumental studies: Considerations about test selection in psychological research, International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 7, 863-882.

Castro-Piñero, J., Perez-Bey, A., Segura-Jiménez, V., Aparicio, V. A., Gómez-Martínez, S., Izquierdo-Gomez, R., Marcos, A., Ruiz, J. R., & UP&DOWN Study Group (2017). Cardiorespiratory Fitness Cutoff Points for Early Detection of Present and Future Cardiovascular Risk in Children: A 2-Year Follow-up Study. Mayo Clinic proceedings, 92(12), 1753–1762. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2017.09.003

Cheung, G, W, & Rensvold, R, B, (2002). Evaluating goodness-of-fit indexes for testing measurement invariance, Structural Equation Modeling, 9(2), 233-255, http://dx,doi,org/10,1207/S15328007 SEM0902_5

Cohen, L. & Manion, L. (1990). Métodos de investigación educativa. Madrid: La Muralla.

Corbin, C, B, & Pangrazi, R, P, (1995). Physical fitness: Questions teachers ask, Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 64(7), 14–19. https://doi.org/10.1080/07303084.1993.10606774

Cortina, J, M, (1993), What is coefficient alpha? An examination of theory and applications, Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 98-104. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.78.1.98

Delgado, M. A., Medina, J., & Viciana, J. (1996). The teaching styles in the preservice of physical education teachers. International Seminar. AIESEP. November. 21-24.

DeVellis, R. F. (1991). Scale development: Theory and applications. California. Sage Publications.

Elosua, P, (2003), Sobre la validez de los tests, Psicothema, 15(2), 315-321.

Forest, E, Lenzen, B,, & Öhman, M, (2018), Teaching traditions in physical education in France, Switzerland and Sweden: A special focus on official curricula for gymnastics and fitness training, European Educational Research Journal, 17(1), 71–90, http://doi,org/10,1177/1474904117708889.

Fornell C, & Larcker, D, F, (1981), Evaluating structural model with unobserved variables and measurement errors, Journal of Marketing Research, 18 (1), 39-50.

Keating, X, D., Subramaniam, P, R., Shangguan, R., & Chen, L. (2013). Physical education program changes from 2006 to 2010, Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 32(2), 205–213, http://doi,org/10,1123/jtpe,32,2,205.

Martínez-López, E. J., Grao-Cruces, A., Moral-García, J. E., & de la Torre Cruz, M. J. (2013). Knowledge and attitude. Two key elements in the training of physical education teachers to prevent and manage obesity among schoolchildren. Revista Española de Pedagogía, 71(256), 525–539.

Martínez-López, E. J., Zamora-Aguilera, N., Grao-Cruces, A., & de la Torre-Cruz, M. J. (2017). The association between Spanish physical education teachers’ self-efficacy expectations and their attitudes toward overweight and obese students. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 36(2), 220–231. http://doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.2014-0125

Ruiz-Ariza, A., Grao-Cruces, A., Loureiro, N. E. M. de, & Martínez-López, E. J. (2017). Influence of physical fitness on cognitive and academic performance in adolescents: A systematic review from 2005–2015. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 10(1), 108–133.

Silverman, S., Keating, X. D., & Phillips, S. R. (2008). A lasting impression: A pedagogical perspective on youth fitness testing. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 12(3), 146–166. http://doi.org/10.1080/10913670802216122.

Wiersma, L. D., & Sherman, C. P. (2008). The responsible use of youth fitness testing to enhance student motivation, enjoyment, and performance. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 12(3), 167–183. http://doi.org/10.1080/10913670802216148

##submission.downloads##

Publicado

2020-11-30

Cómo citar

Blanco-Luengo, D., Nuviala, A., Izquierdo-Gómez, R., & Grao-Cruces, A. (2020). Diseño y validación de una escala para medir en profesores de Educación Física el uso responsable de las pruebas de condición física (FITPET) (Design and validation of a scale to assess the responsible use of fitness testing in physical education teachers (FITPET)). Cultura, Ciencia Y Deporte, 15(46), 551-560. https://doi.org/10.12800/ccd.v15i46.1646