Efecto de la experiencia del árbitro de fútbol en la competición deportiva (Effect of the soccer referee's experience in sports competition)

Autores/as

  • Cristóbal Muñoz Arjona Comité Técnico de Árbitros. Real Federación Española de Fútbol. Departamento de Educación Física y Deporte. Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain
  • Bruno Ricardo Fernandes Coelho Instituto Politécnico de Coimbra, Escuela de Educación de Coimbra, Departamento de Educación, IIA, Robocorp, ASSERT, Portugal
  • Tito Daniel Dos Santos Silva Instituto Politécnico de Coimbra, Escuela de Educación de Coimbra, Departamento de Educación, IIA, Robocorp, ASSERT, Portugal
  • Wanesa Onetti-Onetti Universidad Internacional de la Rioja, Logroño, España
  • Alfonso Castillo Rodríguez Departamento de Educación Física y Deporte. Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.12800/ccd.v17i51.1562

Palabras clave:

Experiencia, ansiedad, autoestima, autoconfianza, GPS, árbitros.

Resumen

Los objetivos fueron analizar la relación entre las variables psicológicas pre-competición de árbitros de fútbol semiprofesionales y sus respuestas físico-fisiológicas durante la competición y comparar estas respuestas atendiendo a su nivel de experiencia. Participaron 153 árbitros (edad M = 23.21; DT = 4.80 años; experiencia M= 6.07; DT = 4.53 años). Se utilizaron los cuestionarios CSAI-2 (ansiedad competitiva; Martens et al., 1990) y RSES (autoestima; Rosenberg, 1965) antes de la competición y se recogieron datos del rendimiento del partido con dispositivos GPS (Owen et al., 2017). Los resultados mostraron que los árbitros experimentados presentaron menores puntuaciones en respuestas psicológicas negativas y mayores en positivas (p< .01). Este grupo desarrolló mayores valores en distancia recorrida y frecuencia cardíaca superior al 95 % de su frecuencia cardíaca máxima (p< .05; d> .70). Se hallaron correlaciones entre autoestima, ansiedad cognitiva y autoconfianza con respuestas físico-fisiológicas. Como conclusión, los árbitros experimentados poseen menores respuestas psicológicas negativas (ansiedad) y mayores positivas (autoconfianza y autoestima) que los árbitros no experimentados. Además, la experiencia podría explicar hasta un 13% de la varianza explicada en variables relacionadas con el rendimiento físico y hasta un 12% en las respuestas psicológicas. Se recomienda aplicar programas de intervención para ayudar a los árbitros menos experimentados a afrontar la competición y la introducción del VAR en categorías nacionales no profesionales para corregir errores claros. Se espera que estas medidas ayuden a los árbitros a mejorar sus capacidades psicofísicas y fisiológicas y aumentar sus niveles de éxito.

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Publicado

2022-02-18

Cómo citar

Muñoz Arjona, C., Fernandes Coelho, B. R., Dos Santos Silva, T. D., Onetti-Onetti, W., & Castillo Rodríguez, A. (2022). Efecto de la experiencia del árbitro de fútbol en la competición deportiva (Effect of the soccer referee’s experience in sports competition). Cultura, Ciencia Y Deporte, 17(51). https://doi.org/10.12800/ccd.v17i51.1562

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